Medical Glossary



Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP) - high energy compound formed from oxidation of fat and carbohydrate and used as energy supply for muscle and other body functions.

Allergy - an unusually high sensitivity to normally harmless substances such as pollens, food, or microorganisms. Common symptoms include sneezing, itching, eye irritation and rashes.

Alternative Therapy -the treatment of disease by means other than conventional medical, pharmacological, and surgical techniques.

Amino Acids -chief components of proteins; different arrangements of the 22 amino acids form the various proteins (muscles, enzymes, hormones).

Analgesic -tending to relieve pain, or a substance that relieves pain.

Antibiotic -a substance or drug used to treat infections originally derived from fungi, bacteria, and other organisms.

Antioxidants - substances, such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E, which block or inhibit oxidation within cells. Antioxidants may reduce the risks of cancer and slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

Arteriosclerosis - a circulatory disorder characterized by a thickening and stiffening of the walls of large and medium sized arteries, which impedes circulation.

Ascorbate - a mineral salt of Vitamin C. Taken as nutritional supplements, ascorbates as less acidic (and therefore less irritating) than pure ascorbic acid and also provide for better absorption of both the vitamin C and the mineral.

Ascorbic acid - the organic acid more commonly known as vitamin C.

Atherosclerosis- narrowing of coronary arteries by cholesterol buildup within the walls.

Aura -a subjective sensation that precedes an attack of migraine or epilepsy. With epilepsy, it may precede the actual attack by hours or seconds, and may be of a psychic nature of sensory with olfactory, visual, auditory, or taste hallucinations. In a migraine attack, the aura immediately precedes the attack and primary consists of visual sensory phenomena.

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Bacteria -single celled microorganisms. Some can cause disease, other bacteria are normally present in the body and perform such useful functions as aiding digestion and protecting the body from harmful invading organisms.

Benign –harmless, used to refer to cells, especially cells growing in inappropriate locations, that are not malignant (cancerous).

Beta-carotene - a substance the body uses to make vitamin A.

Biofeedback - a technique for helping an individual to become conscious of usually unconscious body processes, such as heartbeat of body temperature, so that he or she can gain some measure of control over them, and thereby learn to manage the effects of various disorders, including acute back pain, and migraines.

Bioflavonoid- any of a group of biologically active flavonoids. They are essential for the stability and absorption of vitamin C. Although they are not technically vitamins, they are sometimes referred to as Vitamin P.

Biotin - a component of the B-vitamin complex formerly designated vitamin H. This is a water soluble substance important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Preset in many foods, it is particularly found in the liver, kidney, mild, egg yolks, and yeast.

Blood Count - a basic diagnostic test in which a sample of blood is examined and the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets determined; or the results of such a test.

Blood Sugar - the glucose, a form of sugar, present in the blood.

Blood-Brain Barrier-a mechanism involving the capillaries and certain other cells of the brain that keeps many substances, especially water-based substances, from passing out  of the blood vessels to be absorbed by the train tissue.

Body Mass Index - A common method using weight and height to estimate overweight, obesity, and risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The index is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2).

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Calorie Cost - the energy expenditure in calories of an activity. Usually measured in calories per minute.

Calorie- amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius, same as kilocalorie.

Carbohydrate - Simple (e.g., sugar) and complex (e.g. potatoes, rice, beans, corn, and grains) foodstuff that we use for energy, stored in liver and muscle as glycogen stores before an endurance event.

Carbohydrate loading - a process that elevates muscle glycogen stores before an endurance event.

Cardiac - pertaining to the heart.

Cardiac Arrhythmia -an abnormal heart rate or rhythm.

Cardiovascular system- heart and blood vessels.

Carotene - a yellow to orange pigment that is converted into vitamin A in the body. There are several different forms, including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene.

Carotenoids- a group of phytochemicals that act as antioxidants and includes the carotenes as well as some other substances.

CAT scan -computerized axial tomography scan. A computerized x-ray scanning procedure used to create a three dimensional picture of the body, or part of the body, for the purpose of detecting abnormalities.

Carcinogens - Substances that are capable or inducing cancerous changes in cells and/or tissue.

Catatonia - a state in which an individual becomes unresponsive; a stupor.

Central nervous system(CNS) - the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebral - pertaining to the brain.

Chelation - a chemical process by which a larger molecule or group of molecules surrounds or encloses a mineral atom.

Chelation therapy -the introduction of certain substances into the body so that they will chelate, and then remove, foreign substances such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and other heavy metals. Chelation therapy can also be used to reduce or remove calcium-based plaque from the linings of the blood vessels, easing the flow of blood to vital organs and tissues.

Chemotherapy - treatment of disease by the use of chemicals (such as drugs), especially the use of chemical treatments to combat cancer.

Chlorophyll - the pigment responsible for the green color of plant tissues. It can be taken in supplement form as a source of magnesium and trace elements.

Cholesterol - a crystalline substance found in soluble fat, which serves in the transporting and absorption of fatty acids. However, excess amounts can be a potential health threat.

Chromosome - any of the threadlike strands of DNA in the nuclei of all living cells that carry genetic information. There are normally forty-six chromosomes (twenty-three pairs) in all human cells, with the exception of egg and sperm cells.

Coenzyme - a molecule that works with an enzyme to enable the enzyme to perform its function in the body. Coenzymes are necessary in the utilization of vitamins and minerals.

Cold-pressed- a term used to describe food oils that are extracted without the use of heat in order to preserve nutrients and flavor.

Complete protein - a source of dietary protein that contains a full complement of the eight essential amino acids.

Complex carbohydrate - a type of carbohydrate that, owing to its chemical structure, releases its sugar into the body relatively slowly and also provides fiber. The carbohydrates in starches and fiber are complex carbohydrates. Also called polysaccharides. 

C-reactive protein(CRP) - an indicator of inflammatory activity that is associated with increased risk of heart attack.

Coronary arteries - blood vessels that originate from the aorta and branch out to supply oxygen and fuel to the heart muscle.

Coronary prone -having several risk factors related to the development of heart disease.

Cortisol - stress hormone secreted by adrenal gland.

Creatine phosphate (CP) - energy rich compound that backs up ATP in providing energy for muscles.

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Dementia - a permanent acquired impairment of intellectual function that results in a marked decline in memory, language ability, personality, spatial skills, and/or cognition (orientation, perception, reasoning, abstract thinking, and calculation). Dementia can be either static of permanent, and can result from many different causes.

Deoxyribonucleic  Acid (DNA) - the source of the genetic code housed in the nucleus of the cell.

Diabetes Type II - a disease in which the ability of the body to use sugar is impaired and sugar appears abnormally in the urine. It is caused by a deficiency of insulin. 

Diastolic pressure - lowest pressure exerted by blood in an artery; occurs during the resting phase (diastole) of the heart cycle.

Dieting - eating according to a prescribed plan.

Diuretic -tending to increase urine flow, or a substance that promotes the excretion of fluids.

DNA - see Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

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Edema - retention of fluid in the tissues that results in swelling.

EEG - Electroencephalogram. A test used to measure brain wave activity.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) - A graphing recording of the electrical activity of the heart.

Electrolyte - solutions of ions (sodium, potassium) that conducts electric current.

Embolus -a loose particle of tissue, a blood clot, or a tiny air bubble that travels through the bloodstream and, if it lodges in a narrowed portion of a blood vessel, can block blood flow.

Endocrine system - the system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries, and testes.

Endorphin - one of a number of natural hormone-like substances found primarily in the brain. One function of endorphins is to suppress the sensation of pain, which they do by binding to opiate receptors in the brain.

Endurance - the ability to persist or to resist fatigue.

Enzyme - an organic catalyst that accelerates the rate of chemical reactions.

Epidemic - an extensive outbreak of a disease, or a disease occurring with an unusually high incidence at certain times and places.

Essential Fatty Acids - Unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for health, but not produced by the body. EFA’s are commonly found in cold-pressed oils, particularly oils extracted from cold-water fish and certain seeds.

Epinephrine (adrenaline) -hormone from the adrenal medulla and nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system; secreted during times of stress and to help mobilize energy.

Exercise - means structured physical activity, but usually denotes any form of physical activity, exertion, effort, and so forth.

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Fat-important energy source - stored for future use when excess calories are ingested.

Fat – soluble - capable of dissolving in the same organic solvents as fats and oils.

Fatigue - diminished work capacity, usually short of true physiological limits; real limits in short, intense exercise are factors within muscle pH and Calcium; in long-duration effort, limits are glycogen depletion or central nervous system fatigue caused, in part, by low blood sugar.

Fatty Acid - any one of many organic acids from which fats and oils are made.

FBS - fasting blood sugar. The level of glucose present in a blood sample drawn at least eight hours after the last meal.

Fiber - the indigestible portion of plant matter and an important component of a healthy diet. It is capable of binding to toxins and escorting them out of the body.

Fibrillation - Rapid and uncoordinated contractions in the heart that can be life threatening.

Fitness -a combination of aerobic capacity and muscular strength and endurance that enhances health, performance, and the quality of health.

Flatulence - excessive amounts of gas in stomach or other parts of digestive tract.

Flavonoid - any of a large group of crystalline compounds found in plants. Also called bioflavonoid.

Flexibility - range of motion through which the limbs or body parts are able to move.

Free Radical - an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. Because free radicals are highly reactive, they can alter the chemical structure of cells and may accelerate the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Functional Foods - foods that have been enriched or fortified with vitamins, herbs, or minerals to provide a health benefit beyond the product’s traditional nutrients. For example- orange juice with calcium.

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Gastritis - inflammation of the stomach lining.

Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the mucous lining of the stomach and the intestines.

Gastrointestinal - pertaining to the stomach, small and large intestines, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.

GERD - gastro esophageal reflux disease. Medical term for a syndrome characterized by frequent indigestion or heart burn.

Ghrelin -  a hormone that helps regulate body weight and metabolism

Gland-an organ or tissue that secretes a substance for use elsewhere in the body rather than for its own functioning.

Globulin - a type of protein found in blood. Certain globulins contain disease-fighting antibiotics.

Glucose - basic carbohydrate energy source transported in blood; essential energy source for brain and nervous tissue.

Gluten- a protein found in many grains, including wheat, rye, barley, and oats.

Glycemic index - a measure of how rapidly a carbohydrate is digested and absorbed into the blood.

Glycogen - storage form of glucose; found in liver and muscles.

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Heart Attack - death of heart muscle tissue that results when atherosclerosis blocks oxygen delivery to heart muscle; also called myocardial infarction.

Heart rate - Frequency of contraction, often inferred from pulse rate (expansion of artery resulting from beat of heart).

Heat stress - combination of temperature, humidity that leads to heat disorders such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heatstroke.

Heavy Metal - a metallic element whose specific gravity (a measurement of mass as compared with the mass of water or hydrogen) is greater than 5.0. Some heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, are extremely toxic.

Hemoglobin-the iron containing red pigment in the blood that is responsible for the transport of oxygen.

Hepatitis - a general term for inflammation of the liver. It can result from infection or exposure to toxins.

Herbal therapy - the use of herbal combinations for healing or cleansing purposes. Herbs can be used in tablet, capsule, tincture, or extract form, as well as in baths and poultices.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol - a carrier molecule that takes cholesterol from the tissue to the liver for removal; inversely related to heart disease.

Histamine - a chemical released by the immune system that acts on various body tissues. It has the effect of constricting the smooth bronchial tube muscles, dilating small blood vessels, allowing fluid to leak from various tissues, and increasing the secretion of stomach acids.

Homeopathy -  a medical system based on the belief that “like cures like”—that is, the illness can be cured by taking a minute dose of a substance that, if taken by a healthy person, would produce symptoms like those being treated. Homeopathy employs a variety of plant, animal, and mineral substances in very small doses to stimulate the body’s natural healing powers and to bring the body back into balance.

Hormone - one of numerous essential substances produced by the endocrine glands that regulate many bodily functions.

Hyperthermia - an alarming rise in body temperature that sets the stage for heat stress disorders.

Hyperglycemia - high blood sugar.

Hypertension - high blood pressure. Generally hypertension is defined as a regular resting pressure over 140/90.

Hypoglycemia - low blood sugar (glucose).

Hypotension - low blood pressure.

Hyponatremia - low sodium concentrations generally resulting from excess fluid intake or excess sweating without sodium replacement.

Hypothermia - life-threatening heat loss brought on by rapid cooling, energy depletion, and exhaustion.

Hypoxia - low oxygen

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Idiopathic - term describing a disease of unknown cause.

Immune System - a complex system that depends on the interaction of many different organs, cells, and proteins. Its chief function is to identify and eliminate foreign substances such as harmful bacteria that have invaded the body. The liver, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and lymphatic system all play vital roles in the proper functioning of the immune system.

Immunodeficiency - a defect in the functioning of the immune system. It can be inherited or acquired, reversible or permanent. Immunodeficiency renders the body more susceptible to illness of every type, especially infectious illnesses.

Infection - invasion of body tissues by disease-causing organisms such as viruses, protozoa, fungi, or bacteria.

Inflammation - a reaction to illness or injury characterized by swelling, warmth, and redness.

Insomnia - the inability to sleep.

Insulin - Pancreatic hormone responsible for getting blood sugar into cells.

Insulin resistance - a condition in which people produce adequate, or excess, insulin but have insulin receptors on muscle cells that have become insensitive to insulin and no longer stimulate muscle cells to take up glucose from the blood.

Interferon - a protein produced by the cells in response to viral infection that prevents viral reproduction and is capable of protecting uninfected cells from viral infection. There are different types of interferon, designated alpha, beta, and gamma.

Interleukin - any of a number of immune system chemicals manufactured by the body to aid in fighting infection.

Intravenous (IV) infusion – the use of a needle inserted in a vein to assist in fluid replacement or the giving of medication.

Ischemia - lack of blood to a specific area such as heart muscle.

Isoflavones - plant based compound with estrogen-like properties that are found primarily in soy beans. Isoflavenes can act as a low-dose estrogens and can also lessen estrogen’s effect on cells and skin layers, possibly reducing the risks of estrogen-related cancers.

IU - international unit. A measure of potency based on an accepted international standard. Dosages of vitamin A and E supplements, among others, are usually measuring international units. Because this is a measurement of potency, not weight or volume, the number of milligrams in an international unit varies, depending on the substance being measured.

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No glossary terms exist for this letter at this time

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Ketogenic diet - a diet that produces acetone or ketone bodies, or mild acidosis.

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Lactase - an enzyme that converts lactose into glucose and galactose. It is necessary for the digestion of milk and milk products.

Lactic acid - a by-product of glycogen metabolism that also transports energy from muscle to muscle and from muscle to the liver; high levels in muscle poison the contractile apparatus and inhibit enzyme activity.

Lean body weight - body weight minus fat weight.

Lecithin - a mixture of phospholipids that is composed of fatty acids, glycerol, phosphorus, and choline or inositol. All living cell membranes are largely composed of lecithin.

Leptin -a hormone produced by fat cells that helps regulate body weight and metabolism.

Limbic system - a group of deep brain structures that, among other things, transmit the perception of pain to the brain and generate an emotional reaction to it.

Lipid - Fat

Lipoprotein - a fat-protein complex that serves as a carrier in the blood (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol).

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) - an enzyme in adipose tissue (also found in muscle). Its activity has been found to increase in the fat cells of obese people who lose weight.

Low density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol - the cholesterol fraction that accumulates in the lining of the coronary arteries and causes atherosclerosis and ischemia.

Lutein - a phytochemical (one of carotenoids) found in kale, spinach, and other dark green leafy vegetables that is beneficial for the eyes. It may help protect against macular degeneration.

Lycopene - a phytochemical found in tomatoes that appears to afford protection against prostate cancer and to protect the skin against harm from ultraviolet rays.

Lymphadenopathy - enlargement of a lymph node or nodes as a result of the presence of a foreign substance or disease. This condition is often referred to as “swollen glands.”

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Metabolic rate - also called resting metabolic rate, this is the energy expenditure rate that occurs during quiet sitting and rest. It is estimated at 3.5 milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight each minute (about 1.25 calories each minute for a 155 pound person) but varies slightly within and between individuals.

Metabolic syndrome - a clustering of metabolic abnormaliites including elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and blood glucose, with central adiposity (waist circumference greater than 40 inches or 100 centimeters) and low HDL cholesterol.

Metabolism - energy production and utilization processes, mediated by enzymatic pathways.

Mineral - a micro-nutrient that is neither animal-nor plant based such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium and zinc, which is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

Mitochondria - tiny organelles within cells; site of all oxidative energy production.

Motor neuron - nerve that transmits impulses to muscle fibers.

Motor unit - motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it innervates.

MRI - magnetic resonance image. A technique used in diagnosis that combines the use of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of the internal structures of the body.

Muscle fiber types - fast twitch fibers are fast contracting but fast to fatigue; slow twitch fibers contract somewhat more slowly but are fatigue resistant.

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Natural Foods - these foods are minimally processed and contain no artificial colors, flavorings, preservatives, or sweeteners.

Naturopathy -a form of health care that uses diet, herbs, and other natural methods and substances to cure illness. The goal is to produce a healthy body state without the use of drugs by stimulating innate defenses.

Neurogenic - training that influences the nervous system.

Neuron - nerve cell that conducts an impulse; basic unit of the nervous system.

Neurotransmitter - a chemical that transmits nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. Major neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

Nucleic Acid -any of a class of chemical compounds found in all viruses and plant and animal cells. Ribonucleic acid(RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA),which contain the genetic instructions for every living cell, are two principal types.

Nutraceutical - a food or nutrient based product or supplement designed and/or used for a specific clinical and/or therapeutic purpose.

Nutrition - provision of adequate energy (calories) as well as needed amounts of fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water.

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Obesity - excessive body fat (more than 20 percent of total body weight for men, more than 30 percent for women).

Organic Foods - the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) strictly enforced proper production of these foods by using the following categories

- “100 Percent organic” - products included all organically produced(raw and processed) ingredients( excluding water and salt). The “100 percent organic” label may be used, as may the USDA organic seal. The organic certifying agent must be identified on the label, as must the seal.

- USDA Certified Organics - made with 95 percent or more organic ingredients. These foods may be labeled as “organic” and carry the USDA organic seal. The name of the certifying agent must appear on the label, although the seal is optional.

- “Made with Organic Ingredients” - foods may include 70 to 95 percent organic ingredients. Up to three of these organic ingredients may be listed on the primary display panel along with the “Made with Organic Ingredients” tag. The name of the certifying agent must be included; the USDA organic seal cannot be used.

-Foods made with less than 70 percent organic content can include the organic ingredients on the ingredient label. This term can be found in the informational panel on applicable products and indentifying ingredients. It cannot be used on the primary display panel, however, and no seals can be used. Specific requirements to be certified organic vary slightly for different types of livestock, dairy and agricultural producers.

Osteoporosis- a disorder in which minerals leach out of the bones, rendering them progressively more porous and fragile.

Oxidation-the process of breaking down fuels (carbohydrate, fat, and protein) in the presence of oxygen to produce energy (ATP and heat) plus carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

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Peripheral nervous system - parts of the nervous system not including the brain and spinal cord.

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Phytochemical - any one of many substances present in fruits and vegetables. There are hundreds of phytochemicals, and more are being identified every day. Some appear to help protect the body against illness, including such serious diseases as cancer and heart disease.

Pituitaryy -a gland located at the base of the brain that secretes a number of different hormones. Pituitary hormones regulate growth and metabolism by coordinating the actions of other endocrine glands.

Physical fitness - the state of energy (aerobic) fitness or muscular (strength and power) fitness.

Placebo - a pharmacologically inactive substance, primarily used in experiments to provide a basis for comparison with pharmacologically active substances.

Plaque - a growth of cellular debris and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that impedes blood flow in the arteries.

Progesterone - a hormone whose functions include preparing a woman’s body for pregnant in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone cream is used in hormone replacement therapy to prevent vaginal atrophy.

Prognosis -a forecast as to the likely course and/or outcome of a disorder or condition.

Protein - organic compound formed from amino acids; forms muscle tissue, hormones, and enzymes.

Pulse - the wave that travels down the artery after each contraction of the heart.

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Radiation - energy that is emitted or transmitted in the form of waves. The term is often used as radioactivity; however, radioactivity is a specific type of radiation that comes from the decay of unstable atoms.

Rapid eye movement (REM) - a stage of sleep associated with dreams.

Relaxation response - proven method to achieve relaxation.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) -a cellular compound that carries messages from the nucleus (DNA) to the rest of the cell (messenger RNA) or transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis(transfer RNA).

Ribosome - a cellular organelle that synthesizes protein from amino acids.

RDA - an acronym for Recommended Daily Allowance or Recommended Dietary Allowance. The estimated amount of a nutrient, or calories, per day considered necessary for the maintenance of good health as determined by the U.S. food and Drug Administration.

Red Blood Cell - blood cell that contains the red pigment hemoglobin and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.

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Saturated Fat - A fat that is solid at room temperature. Although most are of animal origin, some like coconut oil and palm oil come from plants. An excess of saturated fats in the diet may raise cholesterol levels in the bloodstream.

Seizure - a sudden, brief episode characterized by changes in consciousness, perception, muscular motion, and/or behavior. A convulsion is a type of seizure.

Serotonin - a neurotransmitter found principally in the brain that is considered essential for relaxation, sleep, and concentration.

Simple carbohydrate - a type of carbohydrate that, owing to its chemical structure, is rapidly digested and absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose, lactose, and fructose are examples of simple carbohydrates.

Sorbic Acid - an organic acid used as a food preservation.

Steroid - one of a group of fat-soluble organic compounds with a characteristic chemical composition. A number of different hormones, drugs, and other substances, including cholesterol, are classified as steroids.

Stroke - an attack in which the brain is suddenly deprived of oxygen as a result of interrupted blood flow. If it continues for more than a few minutes, brain damage and even death may result.

Strength - ability of muscle to exert force.

Sublingual - literally, under the tongue, sublingual medications and supplements often look like tablets or liquids meant for swallowing, but they are designed to be held in the mouth while the active ingredient is absorbed into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes.

Syncope - temporary loss of consciousness; fainting.

Syndrome - a group of signs and symptoms that together are known or presumed to characterize a disorder.

Systemic - pertaining to the entire body.

Systolic pressure - highest pressure in arteries that results from contraction (systole) of the heart.

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Tendon - tough connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.

Tension - the condition of being strained, stressed.

Testosterone - an anabolic (tissue building) hormone found in higher concentrations in males.

Thrombus - an obstruction in the blood vessel.

Topical –pertaining to the surface of the body.

Toxicity - the quality of being poisonous. Toxicity reactions in the body impair bodily functions and/or damage cells.

Toxin- a poison that impairs the health and functioning of the body.

Tremor - involuntary trembling.

Triglyceride - a fat consisting of three fatty acids and glycerol.

Type A Personality - A personality that tends to be impatient and aggressive. Persons with type A personalities tend to have a stronger stress reactions and may be more susceptible to cardiovascular disease.

Type B Personality - A personality that tends to be relaxed and patient, and less reactive to stress. Those with type B personalities may be less prone to develop stress related illnesses such as high blood pressure and heart disease.

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Unsaturated Fat - any of a number of dietary fats that are liquid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats come from vegetable sources and are good sources of essential fatty acids. Examples include flaxseed oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, and primrose oil.

Urticaria - hives

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Vaccines - a preparation administered to achieve immunity against a specific agent by inducing the body to make antibodies to that agent. A vaccine may be a suspension of living or dead microorganisms, or a solution of an allergen or viral or bacterial antigens.

Vegan - these products are derived solely from plant origin, excluding animal protein (such as meat, eggs, dairy products, or honey).

Vegetarian - foods derived from plant sources such as vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts. May contain some animal protein, usually using egg or dairy products as ingredients.

Ventricle - chamber of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs (right ventricle) or to the rest of the body (left ventricle).

Vitamin - one of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities for life. For the most part, they must be supplied through the diet, since the body does not manufacture them.

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Warm up - a pre-exercise activity used to increase muscle temperature and rehearse skills.

Water-soluble - capable of dissolving in water.

Weight training - progressive resistance exercise using weight for resistance.

Wellness - a conscious and deliberate approach to an advanced state of physical, physiological, and spiritual health.

White Blood Cell - a blood cell that functions in fighting infection and in wound repair.

Withdrawal - the process of adjustment that occurs when the use of a habit-forming substance to which the body has become accustomed is discontinued.

Work - product of force and distance

Work Capacity - the ability to achieve work goals without undue fatigue and without becoming a hazard to oneself or coworkers; also referred to as sustainable work capacity.

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